In 1972, Michael Goldberg holds his Video Communication Do It Yourself Kit workshop/exhibition in Tokyo. Many of the local artists involved in the show join together and form the group Video Hiroba. A few members jointly purchase a black-and-white consumer video camera. They begin exploring the technical limits of the medium and assist with each other’s projects, which range from formalistic videos to social documentaries. The word “hiroba” means public square, and was chosen to imply public communication or thoroughfare. The original Hiroba members include: Sakumi Hagiwara, Nobuhiro Kawanaka, Hakudo Kobayashi, Masao Kamura, Toshio Matsumoto, Shoko Matsushita, Rikuro Miyai, Michitaka Nakahara, Fujiko Nakaya, Yoshiaki Tono, Katsuhiro Yamaguchi, and Keigo Yamamoto.